# Visualizing Categorical Data

The **vcd **package provides a variety of methods for visualizing multivariate categorical data, inspired by Michael Friendly's wonderful "*Visualizing Categorical Data*". Extended mosaic and association plots are described here. Each provides a method of visualing complex data and evaluating deviations from a specified independence model. For more details, see **The Strucplot Framework**.

## Mosaic Plots

For extended mosaic plots, use **mosaic(x, condvar=, data=)** where **x** is a table or formula, **condvar=** is an optional conditioning variable, and **data=** specifies a data frame or a table. Include **shade=TRUE** to color the figure, and **legend=TRUE** to display a legend for the Pearson residuals.

`# Mosaic Plot Example`

library(vcd)

mosaic(HairEyeColor, shade=TRUE, legend=TRUE)

## Association Plots

To produce an extended association plot use **assoc(x, row_vars, col_vars) **where **x **is a contingency table, **row_vars** is a vector of integers giving the indices of the variables to be used for the rows, and **col_vars **is a vector of integers giving the indices of the variables to be used for the columns of the association plot.

`# Association Plot Example`

library(vcd)

assoc(HairEyeColor, shade=TRUE)

## Going Further

Both functions are complex and offer multiple input and output options. See **help(mosaic) **and **help(assoc)** for more details.

## To Practice

To practice plotting in R, try this course in data visualization with R