# Reusing Results

In **SAS**, you can save the results of statistical analyses using the *Output Delivery System *(ODS). While ODS is a vast improvement over PROC PRINTO, it's sophistication can make some features very hard to learn (just try mastering PROC TEMPLATE). In **SPSS** you can do the same thing with the *Output Management System* (OMS). Again, not one of the easiest topics to learn.

One of the most useful design features of **R** is that the output of analyses can easily be saved and used as input to additional analyses. `# Example 1 `

lm(mpg~wt, data=mtcars)

This will run a simple linear regression of miles per gallon on car weight using the data frame mtcars. Results are sent to the screen. Nothing is saved.

`# Example 2 `

fit <- lm(mpg~wt, data=mtcars)

This time, the same regression is performed but the results are saved under the name fit. No output is sent to the screen. However, you now can manipulate the results.

`# Example 2 (continued...)`

str(fit) # view the contents/structure of "fit"

The assignment has actually created a list called "fit" that contains a wide range of information (including the predicted values, residuals, coefficients, and more.

`# Example 2 (continued again)`

# plot residuals by fitted values

plot(fit$residuals, fit$fitted.values)

To see what a function returns, look at the **value** section of the online help for that function. Here we would look at **help(lm)**.

The results can also be used by a wide range of other functions.

`# Example 2 (one last time, I promise)`

# produce diagnostic plots

plot(fit)

# predict mpg from wt in a new set of data

predict(fit, mynewdata)

# get and save influence statistics

cook <- cooks.distance(fit)

## To Practice

To practice reusing results in variables, try this interactive course on the introduction to R programming from DataCamp.