# Operators

**R**'s binary and logical operators will look very familiar to programmers. Note that binary operators work on vectors and matrices as well as scalars.

## Arithmetic Operators

Operator |
Description |

+ |
addition |

- |
subtraction |

* |
multiplication |

/ |
division |

^ or ** |
exponentiation |

x %% y |
modulus (x mod y) 5%%2 is 1 |

x %/% y |
integer division 5%/%2 is 2 |

## Logical Operators

Operator |
Description |

< |
less than |

<= |
less than or equal to |

> |
greater than |

>= |
greater than or equal to |

== |
exactly equal to |

!= |
not equal to |

!x |
Not x |

x | y |
x OR y |

x & y |
x AND y |

isTRUE(x) |
test if X is TRUE |

`# An example `

x <- c(1:10)

x[(x>8) | (x<5)]

# yields 1 2 3 4 9 10

# How it works

x <- c(1:10)

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x > 8

F F F F F F F F T T

x < 5

T T T T F F F F F F

x > 8 | x < 5

T T T T F F F F T T

x[c(T,T,T,T,F,F,F,F,T,T)]

1 2 3 4 9 10

## Going Further

To practice working with logical operators in R, try the free first chapter on conditionals of this interactive course.